Assignment Instructions

Define, illustrate, and differentiate between personal threat and intergroup threat. Explain how threat conditions (no threat, personal threat, and intergroup threat) affect behavior..

Topic: Intergroup Theories

There are many theories of how individuals behave in groups. This collection of theories has come to be known as intergroup theories of behavior or simply intergroup theories. Research in this area has grown vastly and has produced a plethora of information regarding the prediction of human behavior. In fact, the field was becoming cluttered with information, although it is consolidating (Riek, Mania, & Gaertner, 2006). Intergroup theories of behavior are typically very well supported. Several theories have emerged via scientific evidence that are worth noting here as each has something to say about motivation: integrated threat theory, social identity theory, and social dominance theory.

Objectives

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Explain the unique perspective that intergroup theories (integrated threat theory, social identity theory, and social dominance theory) contribute to an overall understanding of motivation in the workplace.
  • Explain how the groups people belong to influence their motivation in the workplace.
  • Explain the similarities and differences between intergroup theories.
  • Describe the overall level of research support for intergroup theories.
  • Illustrate how intergroup theories can be applied in the workplace.
  • Assess the strengths and weaknesses of intergroup theories.

Part 1: Integrated Threat Theory

At the end of this part of the lesson, you will be able to:

  • Define, illustrate, and differentiate between personal threat and intergroup threat.
  • Explain how threat conditions (no threat, personal threat, and intergroup threat) affect behavior.

Part 2: Social Identity Theory

At the end of this part of the lesson, you will be able to:

  • Define and differentiate between personal identity and social identity.
  • Explain when personal or social identity is the primary determinant of a person’s behavior.
  • Explain the relationship between group status, self-esteem, and social identity.

L04 Overview

Topic: Job-Design Approach

Suppose that you had a job where the pay and benefits are competitive, your co-workers and supervisor are wonderful, and you agree with the policies and practices of the organization. The only problem is that you find the work tasks that you do boring and monotonous. Would you be motivated and satisfied with such a job? In comparison with pay, benefits, collegial co-workers, and good supervision, how important is it for the work that you do to be meaningful, interesting, and challenging?

According to the job-design approach, the primary source of work motivation is the content of people’s jobs. That is, by designing jobs to be more appealing, motivation can be improved. When work is interesting, meaningful, and enjoyable, employees will be more satisfied and perform better. Therefore, it is important to properly match individuals to jobs to achieve the best fit. However, too often, jobs are devised haphazardly without giving adequate attention to the needs of workers (Campion & Thayer, 1987). Managers may tend to blame employees for low productivity when the real problem lies in a poorly designed set of tasks. The job-design approach assumes that people can be motivated by the nature of their job tasks. The emphasis is on the jobs that are performed and the fit of individuals into those jobs.

It is important to understand the historical context for this approach to motivation. Frederick W. Taylor’s principles of scientific management influenced many organizations to design jobs in order to maximize efficiency. Many jobs such as assembly-line jobs were simple, mechanized, highly routine, and monotonous (e.g. spray painting cars or tightening the lugs on the right front wheel of a car for 8 hours per day). While this mechanistic job-design approach reduced errors, required little training, and allowed almost anyone to do these types of jobs, the drawbacks included worker complaints of boredom and dissatisfaction as well as high absenteeism and turnover. During this time, financial incentives were the dominant way that managers attempted to motivate workers. However, in the 1950s and 1960s, job-based theories introduced the idea that job content can impact motivation either positively or negatively. Changing jobs to be more meaningful and satisfying to employees could be an important source of motivation and job satisfaction.

In this lesson, we will consider two theories that focus on the nature of the job as the source of motivation: Herzberg’s two-factor theory and Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics theory.

Objectives

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Explain the unique perspective that job-based theories (two-factor theory and job characteristics theory) contribute to an overall understanding of motivation in the workplace.
  • Explain the similarities and differences between job-based theories.
  • Describe the overall level of research support for job-based theories.
  • Illustrate how job-based theories can be applied in the workplace.
  • Assess the strengths and weaknesses of job-based theories.
  • List and describe the four job-design approaches that make up the multidisciplinary approach.

Part 1: Two-Factor Theory

At the end of this part of the lesson, you will be able to:

  • Define, illustrate, and differentiate between hygiene factors and motivators.
  • Explain how hygiene factors and motivators contribute to work motivation and job satisfaction.

Part 2: Job Characteristics Theory

At the end of this part of the lesson, you will be able to:

  • Describe the job characteristics model in terms of the five core job dimensions, three critical psychological states, and work outcomes.
  • Define motivation potential score (MPS) and growth-need strength and explain the relationship between MPS, growth-need strength, and work outcomes.

Readings and Resources

  • Johns, G. (2010).Some unintended consequences of job design (Links to an external site.). Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 361-369.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paper Assignment

If you have any questions please let me know. If you need more info from lesson let me know. I am currently in the military Air Force SSgt in a leadership position I have 5 troops under me. We are working 12 hours days due to covid since we have some personell that are sick. The moral is low and every ojne is tired all the time including my self.

 

 

 

Assignment Overview

  • Purpose:Analyze and apply ideas from two work-behavior theories and related concepts to your own behaviors in an organizational setting and identify actionable steps to change targeted behaviors.
  • Leadership Competencies Key:Analyzing and Evaluating Information (Critical Thinking), Considering New Ideas and Adapting (Agility), Presenting a Proposal (Communication), Pursuing Self-Development (Career Drive), Setting Objectives (Execution)

Deliverable and Criteria Details

By Monday, 9 AM, submit your Analysis and Application of Work Behavior Research paper. Write a paper (3-4 pages, Times New Roman, 12 pt font, double-spaced; cover and references pages are not included in page count), applying work-behavior concepts and research to analysis of your own behaviors and to development of an actionable plan to change selected behaviors.

In this paper, you will analyze and apply selected theories or research about work behavior to your own experiences. As reflected in the Leadership Competencies that are targeted in this assignment, a key objective is to recognize that influencing behavior is not “just” common sense. You will critically reflect on the value of theory and research to improve your ability to target behavior — beginning with “self” as a case-study subject.

Select 2-3 ideas from work behavior theory or research to analyze and implement to target and change 1-2 of your own organizational behaviors during the remainder of the term. (Note that you may choose to focus on behaviors and goals in broadly defined organizational settings, including volunteer or paid work environments, community organizations, religious organizations, etc.) You will fully explain and analyze your behaviors and the ways and reasons you will target them, using concepts from your selected work behavior theories and research. You do not have to select “major” or “significant” or “big” behaviors. It’s best to select behaviors that you genuinely want to change in some way and that can be meaningfully impacted with efforts made during the term. Your targeted behaviors should involve interactions with and/or have impacts on others, not focus on personal behavioral goals. For example, don’t choose behaviors related to personal health or fitness.

Your analyses should be based on course content and any additional research you might choose to include. Before applying new concepts, terminology, or theories, you must define and explain them in your own words and cite the sources of information where and when information from sources is used.

There is no right or wrong answer for this paper, but you must make your argument based on the standards set here and in a clear and concise manner. This means with a clear thesis statement, detailed explanations, apparent connection between theory and behaviors, and strong organization (i.e. cohesive essay with clear and well-integrated beginning, middle, and end — not just a series of answers to the directions and questions below).

SMART Goals

Your behavior change goals should follow the SMART format. Your action steps should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and timely.

For example, “I will be more assertive” is not a SMART step. It’s too general and leaves too many unanswered questions: With whom? When? How? Why? What obstacles/challenges (internal and/or external) might you anticipate, and what strategies can you put in place to overcome them? How and when will you assess targeted behavior change to determine success — and possible necessary modifications — of your action steps?

For more information about SMART goals, please see Step 4 (Write a Goal Statement for Each Solution) of the following Penn State Extension resource: The Seven Steps of Action Planning (Links to an external site.). This topic is also addressed in Lesson 13.

Accountability Partner

Identify an “accountability partner” to provide feedback and support throughout the term. (You will reflect on the impact of your accountability partner in the Unit 04 Assignment.) Just as you may think beyond a career/work setting for your definition of “organization,” your “accountability partner” can, also, be broadly defined. As you select your accountability partner, consider the following things:

  • Select someone whom you trust — to be honest with you, to hold you accountable, and to keep your confidences.
  • Select someone who is familiar with your strengths and weaknesses, and who has the opportunity to witness the behaviors you’re targeting.
  • Select someone who would be willing to provide feedback over the next few months. Be sure to ask permission and confirm their genuine willingness. Emphasize that you only want them to accept this role if they have time and interest.
  • Clearly explain what you’re asking of them. Tell them the behaviors you’re planning to target over the next few months. Explain your reasons. Be specific in explaining the changes in behaviors you’ll be focusing on and the ways you plan to increase the success of making those changes (i.e. the theoretical or research concepts you plan to apply). Be specific in identifying checkpoints or target dates when you’d like to touch base with them to discuss your progress. Will you be asking for feedback? Reminders? Or just a listening ear?

Components

A possible organizing structure for your paper might be as follows:

  • Explain 1-2 of your own organizational behaviors that you’d like to change in some way. Provide details about the organization and your reasons for targeting those selected behaviors.
  • Present and discuss 2-3 work-behavior theories or concepts that you believe are relevant to your intended behavior changes. Explain the concepts in your own words, cite the sources of information about those concepts, and then discuss the reasons you can apply those ideas to your own behavior change intentions.
  • Discuss challenges you’ve had in attempting to change behaviors in the past. Explain the reasons you think applying work-behavior research can help you successfully change your selected behaviors. (Be sure to cite the research.)
  • Identify your accountability partner. (A pseudonym is fine.) Why did you select that person? What role will they play in helping you to change your behavior? Do you anticipate that concepts from work-behavior theories will play a part in the impact your accountability partner has on your progress toward your goals? Explain.
  • Integrate all of those points to present specific, actionable steps you will take over the next few months to target your behavior. Conclude with an explanation of your anticipated outcome.

Formal Paper Format

Your paper must follow APA guidelines for paper writing. Refer to the Formal Paper Format page for information and resources.

Attach and submit a text document to the correct drop box in the Unit 02 module. Also upload the document to the course section at Turnitin (Links to an external site.).

Note on Turnitin: Please be aware that Turnitin will produce an originality report. See the Academic Integrity section of the Syllabus for information about the potential consequences of plagiarism and other violations of academic integrity.

Part 3: Social Dominance Theory

At the end of this part of the lesson, you will be able to:

  • Explain the behavioral asymmetry between dominant and subordinate groups in terms of social value and motivations.
  • Describe and illustrate the three group-based social hierarchies.
  • Define, illustrate, and differentiate between hierarchy-enhancing and hierarchy-attenuating legitimizing myths.
  • Define and illustrate social dominance orientation.
  • Explain how social dominance orientation interacts with legitimizing myths to produce social and organizational policy.
  • Define, illustrate, and explain the purpose of in-group favoritism and out-group derogation.

Readings and Resources

  • Van Knippenberg, D. (2000). Work motivation and performance: A social identity perspective(Links to an external site.). Applied Psychology: An International Review, 49(3), 357-371.

 

The post Define, illustrate, and differentiate between personal threat and intergroup threat. Explain how threat conditions (no threat, personal threat, and intergroup threat) affect behavior. appeared first on Bestchoice Writers.

Define, illustrate, and differentiate between personal threat and intergroup threat. Explain how threat conditions (no threat, personal threat, and intergroup threat) affect behavior.

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