Consider the following scenario and submit a Word document answering the questio.
Consider the following scenario and submit a Word document answering the questions.
A 45 year old female with a past medical history of Type II Diabetes Mellitus (last hemoglobin A1c of 12, currently on intensive insulin therapy), tobacco abuse (approximately 2 packs/day for the last 15 years), and thyroid cancer (anaplastic carcinoma, status post total thyroidectomy) presents to her family nurse practitioner with complaints of a sore throat, cough productive of thick sputum which appears “green,” and subjective fevers and chills (though her temperature has never been above 98.5 degrees Fahrenheit).
She states that her symptoms have been present for 1 week now and that they have gotten worse with time. She initially thought that she had a “head cold” since she gets them around this time of the year (summer) often, and she notes that she attended a family gathering at which she was exposed to a sick individual (her niece who has a strong history of Bruton’s X-linked agammaglobulinemia). Her cough, in particular, has been bothersome, as for the past few days, she has expectorated so much mucus that, per her own testimony, “she has run out of paper cups!”
Her vital signs were stable upon examination, but auscultation of the lungs did reveal significant crackles; a chest radiograph performed at the office was revealing of a right lower lobe pneumonia, and sputum cultures were revealing of Streptococcus Pneumoniae.
Please answer the following questions:
Given the duration of her symptoms, what components of her immune system are most active at this time?
What is the mechanism as to how her immune system develops antibodies for the specific pathogen in her sputum?
What would be the difference between the way in which immunoglobulins will eradicate the pathogen versus the T cell receptor?
How will her immune system (particularly the adaptive immune system) respond to a second infection with this particular Streptococcal species?